au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- (*aku̯ent- : aḫu̯ent-)

    au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- (*aku̯ent- : aḫu̯ent-)
    English meaning: to flow, to wet; water, etc.
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “benetzen, befeuchten, fließen”
    Note: From Root angʷ(h)i- : ‘snake, worm” derived Root akʷü- (more properly ǝkʷü ): ēkʷ- : “water, river”; Root eĝhero- : “lake, inner sea”; Root ad(u)-, ad-ro- : “water current”: Illyr. pannon. VN ᾽Οσεριᾶτες [common Alb.-Illyr.-Balt -ĝh- > -d-, -z- phonetic mutation]. From Root akʷü- “water, river” nasalized in *aku̯ent- (suffixed in -er, -or) derived Root au̯(e)- 9, au̯ed-, au̯er- : “to flow, to wet; water, etc.”
    Material: a) au/̯ е/-, aue̯ nt-:
    Note: The following mutations have taken place: Root: akʷü- > aku̯/е/-, aku̯ent- > au̯/е/-, au̯ent-: Hisp. FlN Avo[s] > spO.N. Ave, PN A[v]o-briga; Gaul. FlN Aveda > prov. Avèze (Gard), Avisio portus (Alpes-mar.); O.Ind. avatá-ḥ m. “fountains, wells” (*au̯n̥tos), avaṭá-ḥ “cistern, tank” (with prakrit. ṭ from t), Ital. FlN Avēns in Sabine land (therefrom Aventīnus m. hill of Rome?), Aventia (Etrurian), Gaul. Aventia, spring nymph of Aventicum > Fr. Avenches (Schweiz), numerous FlN Avantia (*au̯n̥tiü) > Fr. Avance, La Vence, O.Brit. *Avantīsü > Welsh Ewenni; O.Lith. FlN Avantà, Ltv. avuõts (*au̯ontos) “ sources, wellspring, spring “. b) au̯ed-, aud-, ū̆d-;
    Note: The zero grade of Root akʷü- “water, river” has been suffixed in nasalized -(n)dor, - (n)tor: *(a)ku̯/е/-, *(a)ku̯entor, *(a)hu̯entor) > (a)u̯ed-, (a)ud-, ū̆d-(*(a)hu̯ed-): Heteroclite r/n-stem u̯édōr, u̯ódōr (nom. sg.), udén(i) (, udnés (gen. sg.) “ water “, compare J. Schmidt pl. 172 ft., Pedersen KZ. 32, 240 ff., Bartholomae PBrB. 41, 273. O.Ind. ōdatī “ the soaking, the flowing “, ōdman- n. “ the waves, floods “, ōda-ná-m “ mash boiled in milk “, Av. (*ahuoda) aoδa- m. “ wellspring, fount “. O.Ind. unátti (*u-n-ed-ti), 3. pl. undáti “ soaked, moistened “; Av. vaiδi- f. “ water run, irrigation canal “. O.Ind. udán(i) loc., udnáḥ gen., udǘ nom. acc. pl. “ water “ (nom. acc. sg. udaká-m); from r-stem derived samudra-ḥ “ sea “, anudra-ḥ “ waterless “ (= Gk. ἄνυδρος); udro-s “ water animal “: O.Ind. udrá-ḥ “ a water animal “ = Av. udra- m. “ otter “ (= Gk. ὕδρος, O.H.G. etc ottar, compare also Lat. lutra and with ū Lith. údra, O.C.S. vydra ds.); also nasalized Alb. (*lutra) lundra “ otter” a Latin loanword from -(e)s-stem O.Ind. (*hutsa-) utsa-ḥ “ spring, well “, compare O.Ir. (*hudeski̯o-) uisce (*udeski̯o-) “ water “;
    Note: The following phonetic mutations have taken place: zero grade in arm: (a)ku̯ent- > gu̯et, zero grade in Slav. (a)hu̯eda- > voda, zero grade in Phryg. (a)ku̯edu > βεδυ [common Greek gʷ> b, kʷ> p phonetic mutation]: Arm. (*gwet) get “ river “ (basic form *u̯edō, Sandhi form to u̯edōr, compare under Slav. voda; it corresponds also Phryg. βεδυ “water”, i.e. *vedū from *u̯edō, Kretschmer Einl. 225). Maybe Alb. (*gu̯et) det ‘sea” : Arm. get “ river “ common Alb. gu̯- > d- phonetic mutatIon.
    Note: Maybe Phryg. βεδυ “water” : nasalized Illyr. Bindus “water god” [common Illyr. gu̯- > bphonetic mutation]. Maybe Alb.Gheg bdorë, vdorë, dzborë ‘snow, snowfall” : Gk. ὕδωρ “water” common Illyr. gw- > b- phonetic mutatIon. Gk. ὕδωρ, ὕδατος (*υδ-n̥-τος) “water” (with metr. elongation ῡδωρ); from r-stem derived ἄνυδρος “ waterless “, ὕδρος, ὕδρᾱ “ water snake “, ἐνυδρίς f. “ otter “, ὑδαρής, ὑδαρός “ watery “ (ὑδαλέος ds. with suffix exchange; similarly ὕλλος “ water snake, ichneumon “ : ὕδρος = lak. ἑλλά̄ : ἕδρα), ὕδερος “ dropsy “, ὑδρία “ water bucket “ (: Lat. uter); from n-stem (compare ὕδνης “ watery “) derived ΏΑλοσύδνη eig. “ sea wave, wave, the billow “ (?),epithet of Amphitrite and Thetis (Johansson Beitr. 117; from also ὑδνον “ truffle “ as “ juicy “??), as well as probably Καλ-υδών, -ύδνα (-ύμνᾱ), Καλύδνιοι, -ύμνιοι (see Boisacq 998 a)? es-stem τὸ ὕδος “water” is only late poet. nom. acc. to dat. ὕδει. Maked. PN ῎Εδεσσα from *u̯edesi̯ü, Kretschmer RIEt Balc. 1, 383. common Gk.-Illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutatIon. Alb. ujë “water” (after Pedersen KZ. 34, 286; 36, 339 not from *ud-ni̯ü, but from *ud-; or, nevertheless, from *udō?). The shift -dn- > nj > j of possibly Alb. (*udna-h) ujë, ujna pl. “ water “ has also been attested in Alb. shtynj, shtyj “poke, push” (*studni̯ō); see Root (s)teu-1 : “to push, hit” Maybe Alb. ujë neut. pl. “water” is a truncated derivative of Luwian wida- “watery”, Hitt. witi “in water”. Luwian watti “?” D-LSg wa-at-ti: KBo XXIX 25 iii 10. Could be cognate of Hitt. witi “in water”, but unprovable. Luwian wida- “watery” D-LPl ú-i-da-an-za: 45 ii 6. See Watkins, Flex. u. Wortbild. 376. Cf. perh. witam[ ] at KBo XXIX 37,4. Contra Starke, StBoT 31.567f, witi, ˚witaš and witaz are Hittite! Luwian witantalli(ya)- “of the water(s)” (??) N-ASgNt ú-i-ta-an-ta-al-li-an: 43 ii 1. ú-i-ta-an-ta-al-li-ya-an-za: 43 ii 9. ú-i-ta-an-tal-li-ya-an-za: 19,4*. AbIn ú-i-ta-an-tal-li-ya-ti: 19,8*. Mere guess based on shape & context. Far from assured! Luwian witatt(a)- “?” ASg ú-i-ta-at-ta-an: 43 ii 11. Perhaps again a derivative of “water”. A 2nd pl. imv. of wida(i)- is highly unlikely in the context. Luwian NINDA wiyattatar “?” N-ASg NINDA ú-i-ya-at-ta-tar: XVII 24 ii 3. Lat. (*hunda) unda, f. “ water, fluid, esp. a wave; fig. a stream of people “ (with n- infix from the present; compare O.Pruss. (*gwundan) wundan n., unds m. “water” and O.Ind. (*hundati) unátti, undáti as well as Lith. vanduõ, -eñs, vándenį, žem. unduo, Ltv. ûdens m. f. “water”, and in addition Schulze EN. 243, Brugmann Grdr. II2 3, 281, 283, Trautmann 337); (*huter) uter, utris “ hose, tube “ (*udri-s “* water hose “, compare Gk. ὑδρία), lutra “ otter “ (l- after lutum “ mud, mire, dirt; clay, puddle “). Umbr. (*hutor) utur n. “water” (= ὕδωρ), abl. une (*udni). O.Ir. (*hudesko) u(i)sce “water” (*udeski̯o-), odar “ brown “ (*udaros), coin fodorne “ otters “ (“water dogs “). Goth. watō (n-stem), dat. pl. watnam “water”; O.S. vætur (æ = IE e? rather umlaut from Gmc. a in the -in- case, see Bartolomae aaO.), O.Ice. (*gvatna) vatn n. (takes o-stem, compare Goth. dat. pl. watnam), vatr, N.. sea name Vättern ; O.H.G. wazzar, O.S. watar, O.E. wæter (*u̯odōr) “water”; O.Ice. (*huotar) otr, O.E. otor, O.H.G. ottar m. “otter, water snake”, in addition FlN Otter, old Uterna; with nasalization within the word (compare above to Lat. unda) probably Goth. wintrus, O.Ice.vetr, O.E. winter, O.H.G. O.S. wintar “ winter “ as “ wet season “ (Lidén PBrB. 15, 522, Falk-Тоrp under vinter; not better to Ir. find “ white “, see under su̯eid- “ shine “); perhaps to Wasser also O.H.G. O.E. (*hwaschan) wascan, O.Ice. vaska, Ger. waschen, wusch (*wat-sk-); with lengthened grade ē of the root shaped from O.Ice. vütr, O.E. wǣ t, Eng. wet “ wet, soaked “. In Gmc. also with Þ O.E. wađum m. “ wave “, zero grade O.Ice. unnr, uđr, pl. unnir “ wave “, O.S. ūthia, ūđia, O.E. ȳđ, O.H.G. (*gvundra) undea “ wave, billow, flood “, like from a root variant *u̯et-, however, it is found nowhere else; Johansson Beitr. 117 f. sees therein the t of the type O.Ind. yakr̥-t. Lith. (*gvounduõ) vanduõ etc (see above); Lith. (*hudras) údra, O.Pruss. udro f., E.Lith. údras, Ltv. ûdris m. “ otter “; O.C.S. (*gvudras) vydra, Ser.-Cr. vīdra (Bal.-Slav. ūd- : Lith. vánd-eni; see finally Trautmann 334 m. Lith.; to ū compare Pedersen É t. Lith. 54 f.); Maybe Alb. vidra ‘sea otter” Slavic loanword. O.C.S. (*gvoda) voda “water” (become Fem. because of the ending -a, here for IE -ō[r]); lengthened grade O.C.S. vědro “κάδος, σταμνος” (with ὑδρία attuning well in the meaning, s. Meillet MSL. 14, 342, Trautmann 337); Hitt. wa-a-tar (*gwütar, wütar ) “water”, gen. úе-te-na-aś (e-grade as Phryg. βεδυ, a of nom. from e?). nom. pl. ú-wi-ta-ar, with unsettled vocalism in spite of Pedersen Hitt. 167. Maybe the old laryngeal present in Hitt. gen. úе-te-na-aś “of water”, nom. pl. ú-wi-ta-ar “waters” was transmited to turk. su “water”. c) au̯er- “ water, rain, river “ (u̯ēr- : ūr-; to the ablaut Persson Beitr. 604, Anm. 2). 1. u̯ēr-, u̯er-: O.Ind. vǘ r, vǘ ri n. “water”, Av. vür n. “rain” (with themat. inflection Iran. Av. vür “ to rain “, med. “ allow to rain, let rain “), O.Ind. vürī f. “water”, Av. vairi- m. ‘sea”; Toch. A wär, В war “water”; Arm. gayṙ “ marsh, mud “ (*u̯eri̯o-); Gk. perhaps in ἀρύω “ scoops “, if *Fὰρ ὔ[σ]ω (see *aus- “ scoop, draw water, ladle “); Alb. (after Jokl SBAk. Wien 168 I 30, 89, 97) vrëndë “ light rain “ (nt- participle); hur-dë “ pond, tank, marsh “ (*ūr-), shure “ urine “, shurë (postverbal) f. “ urine “ (prefix sh from Lat. ex or IE *sm̥ + ūr-në; or + Gk. οὐρέω?);
    Note: Albanian preserved the old laryngeal ḫ- > s- like satem languages Alb. (*sūrīna) shura “ urine “ : Hittite šehur “ urine “ : Lat. ūrīna “ urine “. But in Alb. hur-dë “ pond, tank, marsh “ Alb. preserved ḫ- laryngeal like centum languages. Welsh gwer m. “ suet, sebaceous, tallow “; O.N. vari m. “ liquid, water “. 2. ūr-, au̯er-: Lat. ūrīna “ urine “ (in which meaning influenced by οὖρον?), ūrīnor, -ürī “ to dive “, ūrīnütor “ a diver “; Maybe Alb. urela “water-pit” : Basque ura “water”. O.N. ūr “fine rain”, ȳra “ to rain subtly “, ūrigr “ dew-covered”, O.E. ūrig ds.; perhaps O.N. ūrr, gen. ūrar (u-stem), O.E. ūr, O.H.G. ūro, ūrohso , Lat. Lw. ūrus “ a kind of wild ox “, Swe. dial. ure “ randy bull, a bull in heat “ (“*one that scatters, drops, one that inseminates “ as O.Ind. vr̥šan- etc, see under); root form au̯er- in Thrac. FlN Αὔρας, Gk. (Persson IF. 35, 199) *αὔρα “water, spring “ in ἄναυρος “ without water, of brooks “ under likewise (about Gk. θησαυρός and Κένταυρος compare Schwyzer Gk.Gk. I 267, 444); in FlN: Ital. Met-aurus (Bruttium), Pisaurus (Umbrien), Gaul. Avara > Fr. Avre, Aura > Fr. Eure, Aurana > Ger. Ohrn (Wũrttemb.), Ar-auris > Fr. Hérault, Vi-aurus > Fr. Le Viaur; O.Pruss. Aure, Lith. Aur-ytė; O.N. aurigr “ wet “, aurr “ wet, water “, FlN Aura, O.E. ēar “ sea “; O.Pruss. wurs (*ūras) “pond, pool”, iūrin acc. sg., iuriay pl. fem. ‘sea”, O.Ltv. jūri- m., Ltv. jũ”ra, Lith. jū́ re s, jū́ rios pl. fem. ‘sea, esp. the Baltic Sea “ (see above to Lat. ūrīna; jpresumably suggestion after J. Schmidt PL 204); Lith. jaurùs “ swampy, marshy “, jáura, jáuras “marshy place, marshy ground, swamp bottom” from *eu̯ǝr- (see Berneker IF. 10, 162, Trautmann 335 m. Lith.). Maybe Arm. jur, gen. jroy “water” [not from (*gʷhðōro-) see Root gʷhðer- : “to run, flow” ] : Alb. (*jura > uja) ujë, ujëra pl. “water”. 3. Verbum: Lith. vérdu, vìrti “ bubble, surge, cook “, versmě “ wellspring “, vỹrius “ whirlpools “, atvyrs “ counterstream on the shore “, Ltv. ver̂du, vir̂t “ soak, bubble, boil, cook “, atvars “ whirl “, O.C.S. vьrjǫ, vьrěti “ stream, bubble, surge, boil, cook “, virъ “ whirlpool “, izvorъ “ wellspring (bubbling water) “, wherefore with from “ cook “ developed meaning “ heat “, Ltv. wersme “ glow “, O.C.S. varъ “ heat “. About possible affiliation of *u̯er/e/nü “ alder “ see there. 4. extension u̯er-s- “ rain, dew “: O.Ind. varśá- n. “ rain, rainy season, year “ (varšati “ it is raining “), Gk. οὖρον “ urine “; ἔρση, ἐέρση “ dew “, Ion. Att. οὐρέω “ urinates “ (kausativ *u̯orseiō, F- proved by the augmentation ἐούρησα), οὐρία “ a water bird “; M.Ir. frass “rain” is older fross (u̯ros-tü, in spite of Pedersen KG. I 44); Hitt. wa-ar-ša-aš “rain”(?)seems O.Ind. Lw. Maybe Alb. (*varśá-) vesa “dew” : ἐέρση “ dew”. u̯r̥sen- “ discharging semen = virile “, O.Ind. vr̥šán- “virile”, m. “ manikin, man, stallion “. thereof derived Av. varǝšna- “virile”, O.Ind. vŕ̥ṣa-, vr̥ṣabhá- “bull”, vŕ̥ṣṇi- “virile”, m. “Aries, ram” (= Av. varǝšni- ds.), vŕ̥šaṇa- m. “ testicles “; Specht (Decl. 156) places here (from Gmc. *wrai-njan-) without s-extension O.H.G. reineo “ stallion “, O.S. wrênio ds., O.E. wrǣ ne “ horny, lustful “; O.H.G. wrenno “ stallion “ is back-borrowed from M.Lat. u̯ersē/i-: Lat. verrēs, -is “boar”, Lith. ver̃šis “calf”, Ltv. versis “ox, rother, cattle”.
    References: compare in general Persson root extension 47, 85 f., Johansson KZ. 30, 418, IF. 2, 60 ff., Persson Beitr. 604 f., 845 (also against connection of u̯ers- with ers-). About finn. vesi, stem vete “water” s. Mikkola Mé l. van Ginneken 137. WP. I 252 f., 268 f., WH. I 81 f., Pokorny Urillyrier 93, 105, 159, 169, Specht Decl. 18 f., Trautmann 20, 334, 337, Schwyzer Gk. I 519, 548, 838.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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